(20) The expression to have ‘brother’, aha in the BT, provides at the same time started augmented, although this mode is even used in Turoyo. Hertevin have both ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
At exactly the same time, additional NENA, i have most other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One to rather strange product that’s attested in most NENA languages except Sanandaj Religious (and this probably simply a spin pit about facts) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends this particular keyword comes throughout the options ql ‘to be crooked’. Every dialects use the function aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you will Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Several other keyword chatted about from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) try baxta ‘woman’, that has supplanted the brand new Syriac atta throughout NENA, although not inside the Turoyo or Mandaic. Which keyword generally seems to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s fascinating to notice one to an uneven plural survives inside several languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and Halabja inse.
(23) An unexpected development mentioned from the Noldeke (1868, 59) is actually rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The alteration out of h to help you x within one word is actually found in the NENA languages the spot where the verb are attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Several other unexpected creativity ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the newest versions zda?a good, zdaya, and zdala in the certain languages. Macuch and Panoussi https://www.datingranking.net/cs/willow-recenze/ (1974, 50) give a possible derivation regarding the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms to the infixed d are located in all the fresh new NENA languages the spot where the resources is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Not all of your pinpointing features of NENA can be found in both Turoyo otherwise Mandaic
In my opinion that above makes it clear that the NENA languages share a variety of special faculties being found neither in the previous attested types of Aramaic neither regarding other life style languages. These features range over the domain names out of phonology, morphology, as well as the lexicon.
Specifically, every languages regarding NENA consent inside the standards dos, 9, fourteen, 15, 16, 21, and twenty two. Every dialects where we have suggestions and agree on conditions 20, 23, and you can twenty-four.
Just about Halabja agree inside the requirements 8 and you may 11. Standard six is located in every languages except Halabja, Hertevin, and you will Sanandaj Christian.
Even after their inner departments, new NENA languages form a stunningly defined category, split clearly away from both Turoyo and you can Mandaic. The career of them languages outside of the NENA pale is out of concern.
The degree to which have try shared across NENA is especially impressive when we take into account the enormous differences between the various dialects. New dictate out of almost every other languages into the NENA could have been each other strong and you will wider, and also the degree of common intelligibility ranging from dialects can be hugely small. Many common designs dispute highly for a familiar source out-of brand new NENA languages, in a choice of just one dialect or in a small grouping of closely related dialects. Meanwhile, we could discern a handful of important bundles regarding isoglosses and this portray brand new borders from dialect communities.
a) Brand new dialect away from Halabja doesn’t display particular important innovations and therefore are located compliment of most of the rest of the dialects. It doesn’t mode a beneficial CCiC-ce preterite away from intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), features no 3rd individual singular copula which have 1 (11). This is certainly the essential fundamental section ranging from dialects out of NENA. This means the left dialects means a group by which designs spread when you’re Halabja remained unaffected by the her or him.